2016 529 Plan State Tax Deduction Limits and How to Choose a 529 Plan And Save Now For Future College Costs – Prepaid vs. College Tax Savings Plan

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With my son approaching another birthday, I’ve started thinking more seriously about his schooling from elementary to college/university. My parents paid for a significant part of my education and I would like to do the same for my son. Given the rising cost of tertiary education, I figured the earlier I save the better. And thanks to the tax advantages, one of the best ways to save for a child’s college education is to put money regularly into a 529 plan. This plan is named after Section 529 of the federal tax code and also known as a Qualified Tuition Program or Plan (QTP).

According to the College Board the average annual cost of tuition, room, board, and fees was around $38,000 at a private four-year college and $16,000 at a public four-year college. So early tax-advantaged saving coupled with the benefits of compounding make investing in a 529 plan a smart financial move. There are two main types of 529 plans, prepaid tuition plans and college savings plans, and each comes in many forms.

2016 – 529 Plan State Tax Deduction Limits

Here are limits on state tax deductions for 529 contributions:

State529 State Tax Deduction
Alabama$5,000 per parent ($10,000 joint)
AlaskaNo state income tax
Arizona$2,000 single or head of household/$4,000 joint (any state plan)
Arkansas$5,000 per parent ($10,000 joint)
California--
ColoradoFull amount of contribution
Connecticut$5,000 per parent ($10,000 joint), 5 year carryforward on excess contributions
Delaware--
FloridaNo state income tax
Georgia$2,000 per beneficiary
Hawaii--
Idaho$4,000 single/$8,000 joint
Illinois$10,000 single/$20,000 joint per beneficiary
Indiana20% tax credit on contributions up to $5,000 ($1,000 maximum credit)
Iowa$3,163 single/$6,326 joint per account
Kansas$3,000 single/$6,000 joint per beneficiary (any state plan), above the line exclusion from income
Kentucky--
Louisiana$2,400 single/$4,800 joint per beneficiary, above the line exclusion from income, unlimited carryforward of unused deduction into subsequent years
Maine$250 per beneficiary
Maryland$2,500 per account per beneficiary, 10 year carryforward
Massachusetts--
Michigan$5,000 single/$10,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
Minnesota--
Mississippi$10,000 single/$20,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
Missouri$8,000 single/$16,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
Montana$3,000 single/$6,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
Nebraska$10,000 per tax return ($5,000 if filing separate), above the line exclusion from income
NevadaNo state income tax
New Hampshire--
New Jersey--
New MexicoFull amount of contribution, above the line exclusion from income
New York$5,000 single/$10,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
North Carolina$2,500 single/$5,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
North Dakota$5,000 single/$10,000 joint
Ohio$2,000 per beneficiary per contributor or married couple, above the line exclusion from income, unlimited carryforward of excess contributions
Oklahoma$10,000 single/$20,000 joint per beneficiary, above the line exclusion from income, five-year carryforward of excess contributions
Oregon$2,265 single/$4,530 joint (i.e., $2,265 per contributor) per year, above the line exclusion from income, four-year carryforward of excess contributions
Pennsylvania$14,000 per contributor/$28,000 joint per beneficiary (any state plan)
Rhode Island$500 single/$1,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income, unlimited carryforward of excess contributions
South CarolinaFull amount of contribution, above the line exclusion from income
South DakotaNo state income tax
Tennessee--
TexasNo state income tax
Utah5% tax credit on contributions of up to $1,900 single/$3,800 joint per beneficiary (credit of $95 single/$190 joint)
Vermont10% tax credit on up to $2,500 in contributions per beneficiary (up to $250 tax credit per taxpayer per beneficiary)
Virginia$4,000 per account per year (no limit age 70 and older), above the line exclusion from income, unlimited carryforward of excess contributions
Washington, DC$4,000 single/$8,000 joint, above the line exclusion from income
WashingtonNo state income tax
West VirginiaFull amount of contribution up to extent of income, above the line exclusion from income, five-year carryforward of excess contributions
Wisconsin$3,000 per dependent beneficiary, self or grandchild, above the line exclusion from income
WyomingNo state income tax

Source : finaid.org

A 529 prepaid tuition plan lets you buy tuition credits or units at today’s rate and use them later when your child attends a participating college or university. The value of your credits – often called “shares” – increases tax-free at the same rate as tuition, so a prepaid tuition plan lets you lock in at the current tuition rate. For example, if you buy shares worth a year’s tuition at a participating college, your shares will always be worth a year’s tuition, even years later when the tuition might cost much more. Most prepaid tuition plans are sponsored by the states, and each state sets its own rules for them. State prepaid tuition plans generally cover tuition only at public colleges and universities in that state, though some cover tuition at private universities in those states. Some states offer extra benefits to people who contribute to their 529 plan, such as matching grants or an option that lets you save for room and board in addition to tuition. There are also Independent 529 prepaid plans that cover tuition at more than 250 private colleges and universities throughout the country. However these plan have various restrictions and relatively limited investment options.

529 Plan Comparison

529 college savings plans on the other hand are much more unrestricted and let you make deposits in an account you can draw on later to pay for eligible college expenses. You can usually choose among several or more investment options for this type of plan, such as mutual funds or money market funds. And the value of your investment grows tax-free if used for eligible college expenses. If you withdraw money for other purposes, you will be liable for taxes and penalties. Think of a 529 college plan as a 401K plan for college expenses.

Unlike prepaid tuition plans, college savings plans do not allow you to lock in at today’s tuition rate. Your investment grows at a market rate and may lose value in an economic downturn, although some plans guarantee a minimum annual return. But you can use the money in a 529 college savings plan at any college or university  in the country and use it not just for tuition but for room, board, and any other eligible education related expenses.

Tips on choosing a 529 plan

Here are some tips that I found were helpful in finding the right plan:

– Start by looking into your state’s prepaid tuition plan. All fifty states and the District of Columbia sponsor at least one type of 529 plan. The plan in your state may have unique advantages for residents, such as an exemption from state income taxes for qualified withdrawals. To learn more about 529 plans, visit the non-profit site for the College Savings Plans Network (www.collegesavings.org). Also check your local state’s 529 site for details on options, benefits and pricing (Google your state name and 529 plan).

– Before you start a serious search make a list of your child/families college needs, desired colleges/states and the amount you could contribute on a monthly basis towards a 529 plan. There is no point over extending your finances and taking on more debt just to contribute to a 529 plan.

– Consider a college savings plan or  independent prepaid tuition plan if your child may need flexibility based on future moves across state lines or for special education needs. These plans may be good a option if you aren’t sure that the schools offered by state plans would suit your child. The Independent 529 Plan site (www.independent529plan.org) has more information about these plans, including a list of colleges that participate in them.

– Make sure you understand the fees for college savings plans. Some college savings plans charge high fees, such as a “sales load” (a fee paid when you buy or sell shares) of as much as 6 percent and an annual administrative fee of 2 percent. If a fee is steep, you might be better off investing on your own or in another type of plan.

– The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) offers a list of questions to ask at www.sec.gov/investor/pubs/intro529.htm) and includes a chart comparing prepaid tuition and college savings plans, facts about how a plan may affect your child’s eligibility for financial aid, and links to lots of additional information.

If you look into a variety of plans, including some in your state, you’ll have the best sense of your options and how your child might benefit from them. The earlier you start the better and hopefully the above guidance can start you going in the right direction.

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5 Comments on "2016 529 Plan State Tax Deduction Limits and How to Choose a 529 Plan And Save Now For Future College Costs – Prepaid vs. College Tax Savings Plan"


[…] In a nutshell, a 529 plan is a state or educational institution-run savings plan that is designed to specifically help parents fund for their child’s higher education.  The money cannot be retrieved by the beneficiary (your child) until he or she reaches a certain age. There are two different kinds of 529 Plans. The first is a simple savings plan. This option functions just like a 401K or IRA, meaning you have the opportunity to contribute funds tax-deferred as well as invest in stocks or bonds from a list of options. Thus, the value of your account will increase or decrease depending on your investments. The second option is acquiring a prepaid plan. This option allows you to pre-pay all (or partial) costs of an in-state public college institution. But since the cost of education changes, a pre-paid plan can be a risky choice.  Either option offers tax benefits.… Read more »

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[…] from Saving to Invest presents How to Choose a 529 Plan And Save Now For Future College Costs, and says, “Given the rising cost of tertiary education, I figured the earlier I save the […]

Car Negotiation Coach
Monday 10:42 am

Good tips, and very admirable planning ahead for your kid.

I’m trying to make up my mind on how to start saving. I’ve also heard there is some benefit to saving the same amount of money you planned to put into a 529 into your retirement accounts but earmarking it for college (unofficially). The benefit being that you could qualify for more financial aid when the time comes.

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